, Volume 154, Issue 4, pp 675-680
Date: 10 Feb 2012

The release of S-100B and NSE in severe traumatic head injury is associated with APOE ε4

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In this article we tested the hypothesis that the level of two biochemical markers of brain injury may be associated with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele.


In this prospective consecutive study patients with sTBI were included (n = 48). Inclusion criteria were Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ≤ 8 at the time of intubation and sedation, patient age between 15 and 70 years, an initial cerebral perfusion pressure > 10 mmHg, and arrival to our level-one trauma university hospital within 24 h after trauma. Blood samples for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S-100B were collected as soon as possibly after arrival, and then twice daily (12-h intervals) for 5 consecutive days. Venous blood was used for APOE genotype determination. Clinical outcome at 3 months after injury was assessed with the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE).


Significantly higher levels of the maximal S-100B (S-100Bmax) and area under the curve (S-100BAUC) were found in subjects with the APOE ε4 allele compared to those with non-ε4. A similar tendency was observed for NSEmax and NSEAUC, though not statistically significant.


Our data indicate that there might be a gene-induced susceptibility to severe traumatic brain injury and that patients with the APOE ε4 allele may be more predisposed to brain cellular damage measured as S-100B and NSE. Thus, it seems to be of importance to consider the APOE genotype in interpreting the levels of the biomarkers.