Outcome of fully awake craniotomy for lesions near the eloquent cortex: analysis of a prospective surgical series of 79 supratentorial primary brain tumors with long follow-up
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- Pereira, L.C.M., Oliveira, K.M., L‘ Abbate, G.L. et al. Acta Neurochir (2009) 151: 1215. doi:10.1007/s00701-009-0363-9
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Despite possible advantages, few surgical series report specifically on awake craniotomy for intrinsic brain tumors in eloquent brain areas.
Primary: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of fully awake craniotomy (FAC) for the resection of primary supratentorial brain tumors (PSBT) near or in eloquent brain areas (EBA) in a developing country. Secondary: To evaluate the impact of previous surgical history and different treatment modalities on outcome.
Patients and methods
From 1998 to 2007, 79 consecutive FACs for resection PSBT near or in EBA, performed by a single surgeon, were prospectively followed. Two groups were defined based on time period and surgical team: group A operated on from March 1998 to July 2004 without a multidisciplinary team and group B operated on from August 2004 to October 2007 in a multidisciplinary setting. For both time periods, two groups were defined: group I had no previous history of craniotomy, while group II had undergone a previous craniotomy for a PSBT. Forty-six patients were operated on in group A, 46 in group B, 49 in group I and 30 in group II. Psychological assessment and selection were obligatory. The preferred anesthetic procedure was an intravenous high-dose opioid infusion (Fentanil 50 μg, bolus infusion until a minimum dose of 10 μg/kg). Generous scalp and periosteous infiltrations were performed. Functional cortical mapping was performed in every case. Continuous somato-sensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and phase reversal localization were available in 48 cases. Standard microsurgical techniques were performed and monitored by continuous clinical evaluation.
Clinical data showed differences in time since clinical onset (p < 0.001), slowness of thought (p = 0.02) and memory deficits (p < 0.001) between study periods and also time since recent seizure onset for groups I and II (p = 0.001). Mean tumor volume was 51.2 ± 48.7 cm3 and was not different among the four groups. The mean extent of tumor reduction was 90.0 ± 12.7% and was similar for the whole series. A trend toward a larger incidence of glioblastoma multiforme occurred in group B (p = 0.05) and I (p = 0.04). Recovery of previous motor deficits was observed in 75.0% of patients, while motor worsening in 8.9% of cases. Recovery of semantic language deficits, control of refractory seizures and motor worsening were statistically more frequent in group B (p = 0.01). Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 89.9% of patients, which was similar for all groups. Clinical complications were minimal, and surgical mortality was 1.3%.
These data suggest that FAC is safe and effective for the resection of PSBT in EBA as the main technique, and in a multidisciplinary context is associated with greater clinical and physiological monitoring. The previous history of craniotomy for PSBT did not seem to influence the outcome.