Acta Neurochirurgica

, Volume 145, Issue 8, pp 649–654

Association between apolipoprotein E genotype and outcome of traumatic brain injury

  • M.-F. Chiang
  • J.-G. Chang
  • C.-J. Hu
Clinical Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00701-003-0069-3

Cite this article as:
Chiang, MF., Chang, JG. & Hu, CJ. Acta Neurochir (2003) 145: 649. doi:10.1007/s00701-003-0069-3


Background. The prognosis of traumatic brain injury is quite variable and not fully explained by the known factors. This study is to examine if the polymorphism of apolipoprotein E (apoE) influences the outcome of traumatic brain injury.

Methods. Over a period of twelve months, we prospectively studied 100 patients who sustained traumatic brain injuries and were admitted to our neurosurgical unit.

Findings. Nineteen patients were apoE4(+) and 81 patients were apoE4(−). There was no significant difference between apoE4(+) and apoE4(−) groups in the cause of injury (p=0.288), type of brain injury (p=0.983) and choice of treatment (p=0.88). The proportion of patients with a lower GCS (<13), indicating a poor prognosis, was higher in the apoE4(+) group (73.7%) than that in apoE4(−) group (61.7%), although the difference was not significant (p=0.654). Six patients (7.4%) in the apoE4(−) group and 5(26.3%) in the apoE4(+) group had been drinking alcohol at the time of injury (p=0.018). The mean duration of hospital stay for apoE4(+) patients was significantly longer than for apoE4(−) patients (p<0.001). Six months after injury, 10 of 19 patients (52.6%) with apoE4 had an unfavorable outcome (dead, vegetative state, or severe disability) compared with 20 of the 81 (24.1%) patients without apoE4 (p=0.017). The apoE4(+) patients had a significantly longer hospital stay and unfavorable outcomes after brain injury.

Interpretation. This study discloses a significant genetic association between the apoE genotypes and outcomes of traumatic brain injury. Patients with apoE4 allele are more likely to have an unfavorable clinical outcome after brain injury.

Keywords: Apolipoprotein E; genotype; PCR; traumatic brain injury.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • M.-F. Chiang
    • 1
  • J.-G. Chang
    • 2
  • C.-J. Hu
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Neurosurgery, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Mackay Junior College of Nursing, Taipei, TaiwanTW
  2. 2.Department of Molecular Medicine, China Medical College, Taichung, TaiwanTW
  3. 3.Department of Neurology, Taipei Municipal Jen-Ai Hospital, Taipei, TaiwanTW