, Volume 298, Issue 2, pp 511-522

Characterization of two chemotypes of Pinus pinaster by their terpene and acid patterns in needles

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Abstract

The existence of two chemotypes of Pinus pinaster, on the basis of the chemical composition of the resin acids in their needles, is known. An investigation was performed on 54 samples of needles of Spanish Pinus pinaster to study the differences between these chemotypes on the basis of monoterpene, sesquiterpene, neutral diterpene, fatty acid, and resin acid composition. One-hundred and twelve compounds were identified by GC–FID and GC–MS. Statistical analysis of the results established the existence of two groups or chemotypes, in the ratio of 5:1. In one chemotype, total acid compounds were more abundant than neutral compounds, whereas in the other the concentrations of both neutral and acid compounds were similar. Distinction of the chemotypes was based on the presence/absence of a sesquiterpene (germacrene d-4-ol acetate), neutral diterpenes (8(14),13(15)-abietadiene, anticopalol, an isomer of anticopalol, and pimarol), fatty acids (10-octadecenoic, 14-hydroxy-10-octadecenoic, and 13-hydroxy-9-octadenoic acids and an unidentified fatty acid), and resin acids (levopimaric + palustric, eperuic, and anticopalic acids, and three isomers of anticopalic acid); and on the different relative percentages of other compounds of these types. This study gives a wide view of the composition of the needles of Pinus pinaster, improving the differentiation of chemotypes on the basis of terpene and acid composition.