Microchimica Acta

, 174:213

In-situ ionic liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method to determine endocrine disrupting phenols in seawaters and industrial effluents

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00604-011-0636-x

Cite this article as:
López-Darias, J., Pino, V., Ayala, J.H. et al. Microchim Acta (2011) 174: 213. doi:10.1007/s00604-011-0636-x


We have evaluated an in-situ ionic liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure for the determination of six endocrine disrupting phenols in seawaters and industrial effluents using HPLC. The optimized method requires 38 μL of the water-soluble ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and 5 mL of seawater or industrial effluent. After appropriate work-up, a drop (~10 μL) of an ionic liquid is formed that contains the analytes of interest. It is diluted with acetonitrile and injected into the HPLC system. This procedure is accomplished without heating or cooling the solutions. The method is characterized by (a) average relative recoveries of 90.2%, (b) enrichment factors ranging from 140 to 989, and (c) precisions (expressed as relative standard deviations) of less than 11% when using a spiking level of 10 ng mL−1. The limits of detection range from 0.8 ng mL−1 for 4-cumylphenol to 4.8 ng mL−1 for bisphenol-A.


Scheme of the in situ IL-DLIME procedure to determine endocrine disrupting phenols in environmental waters.


Endocrine disrupting phenolsBisphenol AIn situ ionic liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextractionIonic liquidsEnvironmental waters

Supplementary material

604_2011_636_MOESM1_ESM.doc (68 kb)
ESM 1(DOC 67 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Química Analítica, Nutrición y BromatologíaUniversidad de La Laguna (ULL)La LagunaSpain