Speciation of chromium in water samples using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometry
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- Hemmatkhah, P., Bidari, A., Jafarvand, S. et al. Microchim Acta (2009) 166: 69. doi:10.1007/s00604-009-0167-x
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A novel method for preconcentration is described for chromium speciation at microgram per liter to sub-microgram per liter levels. It is based on selective complex formation of both Cr(VI) and Cr(III) followed by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and determination by microsample introduction-flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Effects influencing complex formation and extraction (such as pH, temperature, time, solvent, salinity and the amount of chelating agent) have been optimized. Enrichment factors up to 275 and 262 were obtained for Cr(VI) and total Cr, respectively. The calibration graph is linear from 0.3 to 20 µg L−1, and detection limits are 0.07 and 0.08 µg L−1 for Cr(VI) and total Cr, respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) were obtained to be 2.0% for Cr(VI) and 2.6% for total Cr (n = 7).