Automatic sequential injection analysis electronic tongue with integrated reference electrode for the determination of ascorbic acid, uric acid and paracetamol Original Paper First Online: 29 September 2006 Received: 01 March 2006 Accepted: 26 June 2006 DOI:
Cite this article as: Gutés, A., Calvo, D., Céspedes, F. et al. Microchim Acta (2007) 157: 1. doi:10.1007/s00604-006-0660-4 Abstract.
A new approach towards a voltammetric electronic tongue has been developed. Automation of the system was achieved by the use of a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system. Design and construction of a small detection device containing 3 working electrodes was carried out. Platinum, gold and epoxy-graphite discs were used for this purpose. An Ag/AgCl reference electrode was integrated into the measuring cell in order to minimise electrical noise. Three oxidisable compounds of clinical interest i.e., ascorbic acid, uric acid and paracetamol, could be quantified by the system. Employing the voltammograms as departure information, artificial neural networks (ANN) have been used as chemometric tool for the modelling of the system.
Key words: Electronic tongue; SIA; neural networks; ascorbic acid; uric acid; paracetamol. References Vlasov, Y, Legin, A V 1998 Non-selective chemical sensors in analytical chemistry: from “electronic nose” to “electronic tongue” Fresenius J Anal Chem 361 255 CrossRef Google Scholar Vlasov, Y, Legin, A V, Rudnistkaya, A M, D’Amico, A, Di Natale, C 2000 “Electronic tongue” – new analytical tool for liquid analysis on the basis of non-specific sensors and methods of pattern recognition Sens Actuators B 65 235 CrossRef Google Scholar Toko, K 1998 A taste sensor Meas Sci Technol 9 1919 CrossRef Google Scholar Ivarsson, P, Johansson, M, Höjer, N-E, Krantz-Rülcker, C, Winquist, F, Lundström, I 2005 Supervision of rinses in a washing machine by a voltammetric electronic tongue Sens Actuators B 108 851 CrossRef Google Scholar Krantz-Rülcker, C, Stenberg, M, Winquist, F, Lundström, I 2001 Electronic tongues for environmental monitoring based on sensor arrays and pattern recognition: a review Anal Chim Acta 426 217 CrossRef Google Scholar Men, H, Zou, S, Li, Y, Wang, Y, Ye, X, Wang, P 2005 A novel electronic tongue combined MLAPS with stripping voltammetry for environmental detection Sens Actuators B 110 350 CrossRef Google Scholar Di Natale, C, Macagnano, A, Davide, F, D’Amico, A, Legin, A, Vlasov, Y, Rudnitskaya, A, Selezenev, B 1997 Multicomponent analysis on polluted waters by means of an electronic tongue Sens Actuators B 44 423 CrossRef Google Scholar Martinez-Máñez, R, Soto, J, Garcia-Breijo, E, Gil, L, Ibáñez, J, Llobet, E 2005 An “electronic tongue” design for the qualitative analysis of natural waters Sens Actuators B 104 302 CrossRef Google Scholar Legin, A, Rudnitskaya, A, Seleznev, B, Vlasov, Y 2005 Electronic tongue for quality assessment of ethanol, vodka and eau-de-vie Anal Chim Acta 534 129 CrossRef Google Scholar Winquist, F, Bjorklund, R, Krantz-Rülcker, C, Lundström, I, Östergren, K, Skoglund, T 2005 An electronic tongue in the dairy industry Sens Actuators B 111–112 299 CrossRef Google Scholar Söderström, C, Borén, H, Winquist, F, Krantz-Rülcker, C 2003 Use of an electronic tongue to analyze mold growth in liquid media Intern J Food Microbiol 83 253 CrossRef Google Scholar Ivarsson, P, Holmin, S, Höjer, N-E, Krantz-Rülcker, C, Winquist, F 2001 Discrimination of tea by means of a voltammetric electronic tongue and different applied waveforms Sens Actuators B 76 449 CrossRef Google Scholar Gallardo, J, Alegret, S, Muñoz, R, de-Román, M, Leija, L, Hernández, P R, del Valle, M 2003 An electronic tongue using potentiometric all-solid-state PVC-membrane sensors for the simultaneous quantification of ammonium and potassium ions in water Anal Bioanal Chem 377 248 CrossRef Google Scholar Winquist, F, Rydberg, E, Holmin, S, Krantz-Rülcker, C, Lundström, I 2002 Flow injection analysis applied to a voltammetric electronic tongue Anal Chim Acta 471 159 CrossRef Google Scholar Gutés, A, Céspedes, F, del Valle, M, Louthander, D, Krantz-Rülcker, C, Winquist, F 2006 A flow injection voltammetric electronic tongue applied to paper mill industrial waters Sens Actuators B 115 390 CrossRef Google Scholar Gutés, A, Céspedes, F, Alegret, S, del Valle, M 2005 Sequential Injection system with higher dimensional electrochemical sensor signals. Part 1: voltammetric e-tongue for the determination of oxidisable compounds Talanta 66 1187 CrossRef Google Scholar Cortina, M, Gutés, A, Alegret, S, del Valle, M 2005 Sequential Injection system with higher dimensional electrochemical sensor signals. Part 2: potentiometric e-tongue for the determination of alkaline ions Talanta 66 1197 CrossRef Google Scholar Llopis, X, Merkoçi, A, del Valle, M, Alegret, S 2005 Integration of a glucose biosensor based on an epoxy-graphite-TTFTCNQ-GOD biocomposite into a FIA system Sens Actuators B 107 742 CrossRef Google Scholar Gutés, A, Ibáñez, A B, del Valle, M, Céspedes, F 2006 Automated SIA e-tongue employing a biosensor array for the simultaneous determination of glucose and ascorbic acid Electroanalysis 18 82 CrossRef Google Scholar