, Volume 155, Issue 1-2, pp 5-10
Date: 22 May 2006

Imaging Single Atoms with Z-Contrast Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy in Two and Three Dimensions

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Z-Contrast STEM images of heavily antimony-doped silicon have been acquired which show quantifiable contrast from single impurity atoms inside a crystal. These images are two-dimensional projections of the sample, which makes identifying defects involving clusters of impurities difficult. Spherical aberration-corrected optics allow probes with much larger convergence angles to be used, which makes it possible to localize impurities in three dimensions by optical sectioning. A three dimensional generalization of the standard two-dimensional convolution description of incoherent imaging captures the basics of this new imaging mode, but probe channeling effects introduce important complications for zone-axis crystals.