, Volume 43, Issue 5, pp 485-493
Date: 20 Oct 2012

Predictors of intraoperative blood loss in patients undergoing hepatectomy

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Despite recent advances in surgical techniques, blood loss can still determine the postoperative outcome of hepatectomy. Thus, the preoperative identification of risk factors predicting increased blood loss is important.


We studied retrospectively the clinical records of 482 patients who underwent elective hepatectomy for liver disease, and analyzed the clinicopathological and surgical parameters influencing intraoperative blood loss.


Red cell transfusion was required for 165 patients (35 %). Based on blood transfusion requirement and hepatic failure, we estimated predictive cut-off values at 850 and 1500 ml. The factors found to be significantly associated with increased blood loss were as follows: male gender, obstructive jaundice, non-metastatic liver carcinoma, Child-Pugh B disease, decreased uptake ratio on liver scintigraphy, platelet count, or prothrombin activity, longer hepatic transection time, operating time, the surgeon’s technique, J-shape or median incision, major hepatectomy, and not using hemostatic devices (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis identified male gender, low prothrombin activity, longer transection time, longer operation time, and not using hemostatic devices as factors independently associated with increased blood loss (p < 0.05).


Male gender and low prothrombin activity represent risk factors for increased blood loss during hepatectomy. Moreover, every effort should be made to reduce the transection and operating times using the latest hemostatic devices.