Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is rare, but its association with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is well known. A 56-year-old man with NF1 was referred to our hospital for investigation of dyspnea. Computed tomography showed a huge mass occupying the right thorax and invading the inferior vena cava. A salvage resection was performed to alleviate the developing hypoxemia. Histological examination confirmed an MPNST. The tumor regrew rapidly and the patient died 6 weeks after the resection. This case report reinforces the importance of monitoring patients with NF1 carefully because of their increased risk of the development of malignant neoplasms.
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumorNeurofibromatosis type 1Von Recklinghausen’s diseaseMediastinal tumor