, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 345-348
Date: 26 Mar 2007

Late Mortality from Thrombotic Microangiopathy After Liver Transplantation: Report of a Case

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Abstract

Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) after liver transplantation is thought to be a rare event. We report a case of TMA after living donor liver transplantation for hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis. The patient was initially placed on a tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive regimen, and received combined ribavirin and interferon treatment as pre-emptive therapy for hepatitis C virus. His post-transplantation course was complicated by cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia, and intra-abdominal hemorrhage after percutaneous liver biopsy, necessitating laparotomy. On postoperative day (POD) 53, we noted a marked thrombocytopenia with a sudden rise in lactate dehydrogenase. Blood smear indicated prominent fractionated erythrocytes. Treatment included immediate conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine (CsA) and successive plasma exchange (PE), despite which the TMA progressed. CsA was discontinued 32 days after initiating the PE, and the TMA progression seemed to cease. However, the patient's condition deteriorated and he died of multiple organ failure on POD 119. We report this case to stress that careful management of calcineurin inhibitor administration is critical in TMA.