Original Article

Acta Diabetologica

, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 201-207

First online:

Independent factors associated with depression in type 1 diabetes mellitus

  • Lucas Francisco ManarteAffiliated withHospital Nossa Senhora do Rosário Email author 
  • , S. DiasAffiliated withDepartamento de Saúde Pública da FCM-UNL
  • , C. GóisAffiliated withHospital Santa Maria
  • , J. M. BoavidaAffiliated withAssociação Protectora dos Diabéticos de Portugal

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Diabetes has been associated with depression since Thomas Willis’ work in 1684 (Rubin and Peyrot in Diabetes Metab Rev 18:173–175, 2002). The aim of this study is to identify social and clinical factors independently associated with depression in individuals with type 1 diabetes. We carried out a descriptive transversal study with 110 type 1 diabetes patients, administered a questionnaire and obtained demographical and diabetes-related data (number of years from diagnosis, initial admission at diagnosis, glycated hemoglobin, number of complications, insulin dose, number of insulin injections per day, admission for ketoacidosis or hypoglycemia at diagnosis, and specific diabetes complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, coronariopathy, and amputation). Depressive symptoms were quantified using the Hamilton Score. We used T tests to investigate potential relations between the covariates and depression (Hamilton score). We concluded the following: as few as 10% of our patients had glycated hemoglobin under 7%; women had more symptoms of depression, and there are four independent factors associated with depression in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus: age, Graffar score, admission for ketoacidosis, and insulin dose.


Depression Type 1 diabetes Graffar HbA1C Insulin Ketoacidosis