Acta Diabetologica

, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 129-137

First online:

Factors associated with type 1 diabetes in Kuwaiti children

  • M. A. A. MoussaAffiliated withDepartment of Community Medicine and Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University Email author 
  • , M. AlsaeidAffiliated withDepartment of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University
  • , T. M. K. RefaiAffiliated withDepartment of Clinical Pathology, Al-Amiri HospitalAin Shams, University Hospital
  • , N. AbdellaAffiliated withDepartment of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University
  • , N. Al-SheikhAffiliated withDepartment of School Health, Ministry of Health
  • , J. E. GomezAffiliated withDepartment of Community Medicine and Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University

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Type 1 diabetes is a common chronic disease in childhood, and the outcome of environmental, genetic and immunologic interactions. The aim was to study the social and metabolic characteristics (lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and total sialic acid) and predisposing factors in 6–18-year-old Kuwaiti children with type 1 diabetes. This pair-matched case-control study included 348 type 1 diabetic children (131 males, 217 females) matched by age and gender to 348 non-diabetic controls. Diabetic children were identified, according to the WHO and the American Diabetes Association criteria, at 182 randomly selected schools. Social and metabolic characteristics were adversely affected in diabetic children compared to their controls. The logistic regression analysis showed that the predisposing factors: family history of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and thyroid disease, were significant associated factors with type 1 diabetes after adjusting for demographic and social variables. The significant correlations of Lp(a) and total sialic acid with glycated haemoglobin, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins partially explain reporting them as possible markers for coronary heart disease. There are adverse metabolic changes in children with type 1 diabetes. As these changes are associated with early onset atherogenesis, metabolic markers need to be measured and possibly corrected at an early stage in children with diabetes.

Key words

Children Kuwait Pair-matched case-control study Risk factors Type 1 diabetes