Assessment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in the rhizosphere of Viola calaminaria and effect of these fungi on heavy metal uptake by clover
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- Tonin, C., Vandenkoornhuyse, P., Joner, E. et al. Mycorrhiza (2001) 10: 161. doi:10.1007/s005720000072
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The ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi from a metal-tolerant plant (Viola calaminaria, violet) to colonise and reduce metal uptake by a non-tolerant plant (Trifolium subterraneum, subterranean clover) in comparison to a metal-tolerant AM fungus isolated from a non-tolerant plant was studied. AM spores from the violet rhizosphere and from violet roots were characterised by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the SSU rDNA, and sequencing. Subterranean clover was grown in pots containing a soil supplemented with Cd and Zn salts and inoculated either with a mixture of spores extracted from the violet rhizosphere or with spores of a Cd-tolerant Glomus mosseae P2 (BEG 69), or non-inoculated. The diversity of fungi, including AM fungi, colonising clover roots was assessed and analysed using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism. At least four different Glomus species were found in the violet rhizosphere. After 8 weeks in a growth chamber, colonisation of clover roots with spores from the violet rhizosphere increased Cd and Zn concentrations in clover roots without significantly affecting the concentrations of metals in the shoot and plant growth. G. mosseae P2 reduced plant growth and slightly increased the Cd concentration. Only one AM fungus (Glomus b) from the violet rhizosphere colonised clover roots, but other fungi were present. AM fungi from heavy metal-contaminated soils and associated with metal-tolerant plants may be effective in accumulating heavy metals in roots in a non-toxic form.