Mycorrhiza

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 411–430

Global sampling of plant roots expands the described molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

  • Maarja Öpik
  • Martin Zobel
  • Juan J. Cantero
  • John Davison
  • José M. Facelli
  • Inga Hiiesalu
  • Teele Jairus
  • Jesse M. Kalwij
  • Kadri Koorem
  • Miguel E. Leal
  • Jaan Liira
  • Madis Metsis
  • Valentina Neshataeva
  • Jaanus Paal
  • Cherdchai Phosri
  • Sergei Põlme
  • Ülle Reier
  • Ülle Saks
  • Heidy Schimann
  • Odile Thiéry
  • Martti Vasar
  • Mari Moora
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00572-013-0482-2

Cite this article as:
Öpik, M., Zobel, M., Cantero, J.J. et al. Mycorrhiza (2013) 23: 411. doi:10.1007/s00572-013-0482-2

Abstract

We aimed to enhance understanding of the molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) by building a new global dataset targeting previously unstudied geographical areas. In total, we sampled 96 plant species from 25 sites that encompassed all continents except Antarctica. AMF in plant roots were detected by sequencing the nuclear SSU rRNA gene fragment using either cloning followed by Sanger sequencing or 454-sequencing. A total of 204 AMF phylogroups (virtual taxa, VT) were recorded, increasing the described number of Glomeromycota VT from 308 to 341 globally. Novel VT were detected from 21 sites; three novel but nevertheless widespread VT (Glomus spp. MO-G52, MO-G53, MO-G57) were recorded from six continents. The largest increases in regional VT number were recorded in previously little-studied Oceania and in the boreal and polar climatic zones — this study providing the first molecular data from the latter. Ordination revealed differences in AM fungal communities between different continents and climatic zones, suggesting that both biogeographic history and environmental conditions underlie the global variation of those communities. Our results show that a considerable proportion of Glomeromycota diversity has been recorded in many regions, though further large increases in richness can be expected in remaining unstudied areas.

Keywords

DiversityGlomeromycotaFungal macroecology454-sequencingBiogeographyDatabase

Supplementary material

572_2013_482_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.1 mb)
Fig. S1Maximum clade credibility tree of Glomeromycota virtual taxa (VT), inferred using Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of small subunit rRNA gene sequences. Posterior probabilities (when >0.5) for nodes are shown. Glomeromycota nomenclature according to Schüßler et al. (2001) including modifications up to 2010, Schüßler and Walker (2010) and Oehl et al. (2011c), respectively, is shown. Family nomenclature is given in the same order, separated by slashes, unless the family names remain unchanged; in which case only one family name is given. VT detected in this study are highlighted in bold type, including novel VT which are coded as MO-xx; the sequencing approach used for each sequence is indicated (Sanger/454). Type sequences of existing VT are indicated with “Type”

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maarja Öpik
    • 1
  • Martin Zobel
    • 1
  • Juan J. Cantero
    • 2
  • John Davison
    • 1
  • José M. Facelli
    • 3
  • Inga Hiiesalu
    • 1
    • 4
  • Teele Jairus
    • 1
  • Jesse M. Kalwij
    • 1
  • Kadri Koorem
    • 1
  • Miguel E. Leal
    • 5
    • 6
  • Jaan Liira
    • 1
  • Madis Metsis
    • 7
  • Valentina Neshataeva
    • 8
  • Jaanus Paal
    • 1
  • Cherdchai Phosri
    • 9
    • 10
  • Sergei Põlme
    • 1
  • Ülle Reier
    • 1
  • Ülle Saks
    • 1
  • Heidy Schimann
    • 11
  • Odile Thiéry
    • 1
  • Martti Vasar
    • 1
  • Mari Moora
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia
  2. 2.Departamento de Biología Agrícola, Facultad de Agronomía y VeterinariaUniversidad Nacional de Rio CuartoRío CuartoArgentina
  3. 3.School of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  4. 4.Department of BiologyUniversity of ReginaReginaCanada
  5. 5.Albertine Rift ProgramWildlife Conservation SocietyNew YorkUSA
  6. 6.Central Africa ProgramMissouri Botanical GardenLibrevilleGabon
  7. 7.Centre for Biology of Integrated SystemsTallinn University of TechnologyTallinnEstonia
  8. 8.Komarov Botanical InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesSaint PetersburgRussia
  9. 9.Microbiology Programme, Faculty of Science and TechnologyPibulsongkram Rajabhat UniversityPhitsanulokThailand
  10. 10.Research and Development InstitutePibulsongkram Rajabhat UniversityPhitsanulokThailand
  11. 11.INRA–Joint Research Unit Ecology of Guiana Forests (Ecofog)Kourou cedexFrance