Antiemetic effect of naloxone in combination with dexamethasone and droperidol in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgery
We examined the effects of dexamethasone, droperidol, naloxone, and a combination of these three agents on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in female patients.
In this randomized, controlled study, 120 female patients with ASA PS I or II undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgery were randomly allocated into four groups. Patients received dexamethasone 8 mg (Dx group) or droperidol 1 mg (Dr group) before induction of general anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and remifentanil. Postoperative analgesia was provided by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia using a disposable infusion pump filled with fentanyl 20 μg/kg alone (Dx group), fentanyl 20 μg/kg with droperidol 2 mg (Dr group), fentanyl 20 μg/kg with naloxone 0.1 mg (Nx group), or fentanyl 20 μg/kg with droperidol 2 mg and naloxone 0.1 mg (Cm group) in a total volume of 80 ml, with a constant infusion rate of 4 ml/h and a bolus dose 2 ml with a 30-min lockout time.
The number of patients who developed PONV and required a rescue antiemetic was significantly less in the Cm group than in the Nx group (p < 0.001 for all). The incidence of PONV was 43, 43, 70, and 17 % in the Dx, Dr, Nx, and Cm groups, respectively.
A combination of naloxone, droperidol, and dexamethasone was effective for preventing PONV in patients receiving fentanyl for postoperative analgesia after laparoscopic gynecological surgery, although further investigations are required to examine the effect of adding naloxone to other antiemetics.