The effects of single-dose intravenous dexmedetomidine on hyperbaric bupivacaine spinal anesthesia
Dexmedetomidine, a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, has analgesic and sedative effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of small, single-dose intravenous dexmedetomidine administration after hyperbaric bupivacaine spinal anesthesia.
Sixty adult patients classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2 and scheduled for lower extremity surgery under spinal anesthesia were studied. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups and administered hyperbaric intrathecal bupivacaine 12 mg. 5 min after spinal anesthesia, patients in groups 1, 2, and 3 received normal saline 10 ml, dexmedetomidine 0.25 μg/kg, and dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg, respectively, over 10-min intravenous administration. The onset time, maximum block level, two-dermatome sensory regression time, duration of motor and sensory anesthesia, and side effects were assessed.
The two-dermatome sensory regression time was significantly increased in groups 2 and 3. The duration of motor and sensory anesthesia was significantly increased in group 3. Onset time, maximum block level, level of sedation, and incidence of hypotension and treatment-needed bradycardia were no different among the groups.
Single-dose intravenous dexmedetomidine 0.25–0.5 μg/kg, administered 5 min after intrathecal injection of hyperbaric bupivacaine, improved the duration of spinal anesthesia without significant side effects. This method may be useful for increasing the duration of spinal anesthesia, even after intrathecal injection of local anesthetics.