, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 433-446
Date: 22 Nov 2012

Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury

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Abstract

Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major health problem that is extremely common and has a significant effect on cardiac surgical outcomes. AKI occurs in nearly 30 % of patients undergoing cardiac surgery, with about 1–2 % of these ultimately requiring dialysis. The development of AKI predicts a significant increase in morbidity and mortality independent of other risk factors. The pathogenetic mechanisms associated with cardiac surgery-associated AKI include several biochemical pathways, of which the most important are hemodynamic, inflammatory and nephrotoxic factors. Risk factors for AKI have been identified in several models, and these facilitate physicians to prognosticate and develop a strategy for tackling patients predisposed to developing renal dysfunction. Effective therapy of the condition is still suboptimal, and hence the accent has always been on risk factor modification. Thus, strategies for reducing preoperative anemia, perioperative blood transfusions and surgical re-explorations may be effective in attenuating the incidence and severity of this complication.