Journal of Gastroenterology

, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 234–243

Epidemiological study of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in Japan

  • Tetsuhide Ito
  • Hironobu Sasano
  • Masao Tanaka
  • R. Yoshiyuki Osamura
  • Iwao Sasaki
  • Wataru Kimura
  • Koji Takano
  • Takao Obara
  • Miyuki Ishibashi
  • Kazuwa Nakao
  • Ryuichiro Doi
  • Akira Shimatsu
  • Toshirou Nishida
  • Izumi Komoto
  • Yukio Hirata
  • Kazuhiko Nakamura
  • Hisato Igarashi
  • Robert T. Jensen
  • Bertram Wiedenmann
  • Masayuki Imamura
Original Article—Liver, Pancreas, and Biliary Tract

DOI: 10.1007/s00535-009-0194-8

Cite this article as:
Ito, T., Sasano, H., Tanaka, M. et al. J Gastroenterol (2010) 45: 234. doi:10.1007/s00535-009-0194-8

Abstract

Background

There have been few epidemiological studies on gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) in Japan.

Methods

We examined the epidemiology of GEP-NETs [pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs)] in Japan in 2005 using a nationwide stratified random sampling method.

Results

A total of 2,845 individuals received treatment for PETs. Prevalence was estimated as 2.23/100,000 with an annual onset incidence of 1.01/100,000. Non-functioning tumor (NF)-PET constituted 47.4%, followed by insulinoma (38.2%) and gastrinoma (7.9%). Distant metastases were reported in 21% patients with NF-PETs and occurred more frequently as tumor size increased (>2 cm). Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) was detected in 10% of PETs but only in 6.1% of NF-PETs. NF-PETs were detected incidentally by physical examination in 24% patients. In 2005, an estimated 4,406 patients received treatment for GI-NETs. Prevalence was estimated as 3.45/100,000, with an annual onset incidence of 2.10/100,000. The locations of GI-NETs varied: foregut, 30.4%; midgut, 9.6%; and hindgut, 60.0%. Distant metastases were observed in 6%. Lymph node metastases occurred more frequently as tumor size increased (>1 cm). The frequency of MEN-1 complications was 1%. Physical examination revealed GI-NETs in 44% patients. The frequency of symptomatic GI-NETs was 3.4%. Interestingly, 77.1% of patients with foregut GI-NETs had type A gastritis.

Conclusion

Our results show there are large differences in GEP-NETs between Japan and Western nations, primarily due to differences in the presence of MEN-1 in NF-PETs and the location, symptomatic status, and prevalence of malignancy in GI-NETs.

Keywords

Neuroendocrine tumorEndocrine pancreatic tumorGastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumorsNationwide surveyEpidemiology

Copyright information

© Springer 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tetsuhide Ito
    • 1
  • Hironobu Sasano
    • 2
  • Masao Tanaka
    • 3
  • R. Yoshiyuki Osamura
    • 4
  • Iwao Sasaki
    • 5
  • Wataru Kimura
    • 6
  • Koji Takano
    • 7
  • Takao Obara
    • 8
  • Miyuki Ishibashi
    • 9
  • Kazuwa Nakao
    • 10
  • Ryuichiro Doi
    • 11
  • Akira Shimatsu
    • 12
  • Toshirou Nishida
    • 13
  • Izumi Komoto
    • 14
  • Yukio Hirata
    • 15
  • Kazuhiko Nakamura
    • 1
  • Hisato Igarashi
    • 1
  • Robert T. Jensen
    • 16
  • Bertram Wiedenmann
    • 17
  • Masayuki Imamura
    • 14
  1. 1.Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical SciencesKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  2. 2.Department of PathologyTohoku University School of MedicineSendaiJapan
  3. 3.Department of Surgery and Oncology, Graduate School of Medical SciencesKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  4. 4.Department of PathologyTokai University School of MedicineKanagawaJapan
  5. 5.Department of SurgeryTohoku University Graduate School of MedicineSendaiJapan
  6. 6.Course of Organ Functions and Controls, Department of Gastroenterological and General SurgeryYamagata University School of MedicineYamagataJapan
  7. 7.Department of Nephrology and EndocrinologyUniversity of Tokyo Faculty of MedicineTokyoJapan
  8. 8.Department of Endocrine SurgeryTokyo Women’s Medical UniversityTokyoJapan
  9. 9.Department of MedicineTakatsu General HospitalKawasakiJapan
  10. 10.Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine and Clinical ScienceKyoto University Graduate School of MedicineKyotoJapan
  11. 11.Department of SurgeryKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  12. 12.Clinical Research InstituteNational Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical CenterKyotoJapan
  13. 13.Department of SurgeryOsaka University Graduate School of MedicineOsakaJapan
  14. 14.Department of SurgeryOsaka Saiseikai Noe HospitalOsakaJapan
  15. 15.Department of Clinical and Molecular EndocrinologyTokyo Medical and Dental University Graduate SchoolTokyoJapan
  16. 16.Digestive Diseases Branch, National Institutes of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney DiseasesNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  17. 17.Department of Hepatology and GastroenterologyUniversity Medicine BerlinBerlinGermany