, Volume 43, Issue 9, pp 641-651
Date: 20 Sep 2008

Colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection: present status and future perspective, including its differentiation from endoscopic mucosal resection

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Abstract

Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allows en bloc resection of a lesion, irrespective of the size of the lesion. ESD has been established as a standard method for the endoscopic ablation of malignant tumors in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract in Japan. Although the use of ESD for colorectal lesions has been studied via clinical research, ESD is not yet established as a standard therapeutic method for colorectal lesions because colorectal carcinoma has unique pathological, organspecific characteristics that differ radically from those of the esophagus and stomach, and scope handling and control is more difficult in the colorectum than in the upper GI tract. Depending on the efficacy of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and the clinicopathological characteristics of the colorectal tumor, the proposed indications for colorectal ESD are as follows: (1) lesions difficult to remove en bloc with a snare EMR, such as nongranular laterally spreading tumors (particularly the pseudodepressed type), lesions showing a type Vi pit pattern, and large lesions of the protruded type suspected to be carcinoma; (2) lesions with fibrosis due to biopsy or peristasis; (3) sporadic localized lesions in chronic inflammation such as ulcerative colitis; and (4) local residual carcinoma after EMR. Colorectal ESD is currently in the development stage, and a standard protocol will be available in the near future. We hope that colorectal tumors will be efficiently treated by a treatment method appropriately selected from among EMR, ESD, and surgical resection after precise preoperative diagnosis based on techniques such as magnifying colonoscopy.