The long-term outcome of patients with bleeding gastric varices after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration
- First Online:
- Cite this article as:
- Hiraga, N., Aikata, H., Takaki, S. et al. J Gastroenterol (2007) 42: 663. doi:10.1007/s00535-007-2077-1
The purpose of our study was to evaluate the long-term outcome and complications of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) in patients with hemorrhage from gastric fundal varices.
Thirty-four consecutive patients with bleeding from gastric varices who were treated with B-RTO were enrolled in this study between December 1994 and September 2005 (urgent cases, n = 12; elective cases, n = 22). The long-term outcome, complications, and various liver functions were evaluated.
Complete obliteration was achieved in 31 of 34 (91%) patients with an acute bleeding episode. In one of the remaining patients, there was a technical failure, and the other two had only partial obliteration. The two patients with partial obliteration did not obtain hemostasis. Thus, the rate of hemostasis was 94% (31/33). Gastric varices disappeared in all patients with complete obliteration during the treatment. The rate of gastric variceal eradication was 91%. Variceal rebleeding from esophageal varices occurred in three patients. The rate of rebleeding was 10% (3/31). Rebleeding from gastric varices was not observed after complete obliteration. None of the patients showed worsening of their Child-Pugh score. Although the 5-year cumulative worsening rate of esophageal varices was 52%, neither portal hypertensive gastropathy nor ectopic varices were observed. The patients with worsening esophageal varices were successfully treated with an endoscopic procedure. The 5-year survival rate was 68%.
B-RTO is useful for treatment of bleeding gastric varices, achieving high eradication of gastric varices, a low rebleeding rate, and a fairly good prognosis with improved hepatic function.