Clinicopathological features of nonpolypoid colorectal tumors as viewed from the patients' background
- Cite this article as:
- Abe, S., Terai, T., Sakamoto, N. et al. J Gastroenterol (2006) 41: 325. doi:10.1007/s00535-005-1762-1
This study was performed to characterize the clinicopathological features of colorectal tumors with flat-, depressed-, or protruded-type morphology (hereafter referred to simply as flat, depressed, or protruded lesions).
There are two major types of colorectal tumor: polypoid (protruded) and nonpolypoid (flat and depressed). A total of 130 lesions from 130 patients with colorectal submucosal invasive cancer were classified into three groups according to their macromorphology seen during endoscopy: flat (laterally spreading) and depressed nonpolypoid tumors and protruded polypoid tumors. The following factors in the patients' background were evaluated: indication for colonoscopy, age, and family history of colorectal cancer in first-degree relatives (i.e., parents, siblings, children). We also compared the following characteristics of the tumors: size, location, depth of submucosal invasion, vascular invasion, and frequency of synchronous and metachronous tumor lesions.
The incidence of abnormal findings on follow-up studies after polypectomy as an indication for colonoscopy was significantly higher among patients with flat lesions (4/24, 16.7%) and depressed lesions (3/22, 13.6%) than among those with protruded lesions (1/84, 1.2%) (P < 0.01, P < 0.01). Patients with flat lesions (65.8 ± 7.6 years old) were significantly older than those with protruded lesions (P < 0.05). The patients with flat tumors had a significantly higher rate of a family history of colorectal cancer (6/24, 25.0%) than patients with protruded or depressed lesions (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). The protruded lesions were significantly larger than the depressed lesions (size 13.3 ± 6.7 mm) (P < 0.05), and the flat lesions (24.1 ± 10.1 mm) were significantly larger than either the protruded or depressed lesions (P < 0.01, P < 0.01). Seventy-five percent (18/24) of the flat lesions were located in the right colon, and this proportion was significantly higher than that among the protruded or depressed lesions (P < 0.01, P < 0.01). The mean ± SD depth of submucosal invasion was 1218 ± 1034 µm in the flat lesions, 2392 ± 1869 µm in the depressed lesions, and 2761 ± 1929 µm in the protruded lesions, representing a significant difference (P < 0.05, P < 0.0001). Of the 24 patients with flat lesions, 9 (37.5%) showed vascular invasion; this proportion was significantly lower than that among patients with the depressed or protruded lesions (P < 0.01, P < 0.01). Patients with depressed lesions tended to have higher incidence of synchronous and metachronous malignant polyps than those with protruded or flat lesions.
It is important to examine the morphology of colorectal tumors when diagnosing them and planning the treatment strategy, including follow-up, after resection of nonpolypoid tumors. It is useful to know the patient's family history so nonpolypoid tumors can be accurately diagnosed.