Monazite ages and the evolution of the Menderes Massif, western Turkey
The Menderes Massif experienced polyphase deformation, but distinguishing Pan-African events from Alpine tectono-metamorphic evolution, and discriminating Eocene–Oligocene shortening from recent extension remain controversial. To address this, monazite in garnet-bearing rocks from the massif’s Gordes, Central, and Cine sections were dated in thin section (in situ) using the Th–Pb ion microprobe method. Cambro–Ordovician monazite inclusions in Cine and Central Menderes Massif garnets are ~450 m.y. older than matrix grains. Monazites in reaction with allanite from the Kuzey Detachment, which bounds the northern edge of the Central Menderes Massif, are 17±5 Ma and 4.5±1.0 Ma. The Pliocene result shows that dating of monazite can record the time of extension. The Kuzey Detachment might have exhumed rocks a lateral distance of ~53 km at a rapid rate of ~12 mm/year assuming the present ~20° ramp dip, Pliocene monazite crystallization at ~450°C, and a geothermal gradient of ~25°C/km. Assuming an angle of 60°, the rate decreases to ~5 mm/year, with the detachment surface at ~21 km depth in the Pliocene. Two Gordes Massif monazites show a similar allanite–monazite reaction relationship and are 29.6±1.1 Ma and 27.9±1.0 Ma, suggesting that the Cenozoic extension in the Gordes Massif, and possibly the entire Menderes Massif, might have begun in the Late Oligocene.