Regular paper

Multimedia Systems

, Volume 8, Issue 5, pp 353-368

First online:

Robust and efficient content-based digital audio watermarking

  • Changsheng XuAffiliated withLaboratories for Information Technology, 21 Heng Mui Keng Terrace Singapore 119613 (e-mail:
  • , David Dagan FengAffiliated withDepartment of Computer Science, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (e-mail:

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This paper proposes a set of digital watermarking schemes for WAV audio, WAV-table synthesis audio and compressed audio. The watermark embedding scheme is closely related to audio content and based on the human auditory system. The experimental results in listening and robustness illustrate that the proposed watermarking schemes can achieve an optimal balance between audibility and robustness of the watermarked audio. The proposed methods are also very useful and effective for copyright protection, tracing illegal distribution and other applications.

Key words: Digital audio watermarking, Robustness, Audibility