Variational characterization for eigenvalues of Dirac operators

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In this paper we give two different variational characterizations for the eigenvalues of H+V where H denotes the free Dirac operator and V is a scalar potential. The first one is a min-max involving a Rayleigh quotient. The second one consists in minimizing an appropriate nonlinear functional. Both methods can be applied to potentials which have singularities as strong as the Coulomb potential.