# Solving the XOR and parity *N* problems using a single universal binary neuron

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DOI: 10.1007/s00500-007-0204-9

- Cite this article as:
- Aizenberg, I. Soft Comput (2008) 12: 215. doi:10.1007/s00500-007-0204-9

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## Abstract

A universal binary neuron (UBN) operates with complex-valued weights and a complex-valued activation function, which is the function of the argument of the weighted sum. The activation function of the UBN separates a whole complex plane onto equal sectors, where the activation function is equal to either 1 or −1 depending on the sector parity (even or odd, respectively). Thus, the UBN output is determined by the argument of the weighted sum. This makes it possible the implementation of the nonlinearly separable (non-threshold) Boolean functions on a single neuron. Hence, the functionality of UBN is incompatibly higher than the functionality of the traditional perceptron. In this paper, we will consider a new modified learning algorithm for the UBN. We will show that classical nonlinearly separable problems XOR and Parity *n* can be easily solved using a single UBN, without any network. Finally, it will be considered how some other important nonlinearly separable problems may be solved using a single UBN.