Association with meteo-climatological factors and daily emergency visits for renal colic and urinary calculi in Cuneo, Italy. A retrospective observational study, 2007–2010
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- Condemi, V., Gestro, M., Dozio, E. et al. Int J Biometeorol (2015) 59: 249. doi:10.1007/s00484-014-0861-1
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The incidence of nephrolithiasis is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Incidence and prevalence of kidney stones are affected by genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between various meteorological factors (independent variables) and the daily number of visits to the Emergency Department (ED of the S. Croce and Carle Hospital of Cuneo for renal colic (RC) and urinary stones (UC) as the dependent variable over the years 2007–2010.
The Poisson generalized regression models (PGAMs) have been used in different progressive ways. The results of PGAMs (stage 1) adjusted for seasonal and calendar factors confirmed a significant correlation (p < 0.03) with the thermal parameter. Evaluation of the dose–response effect [PGAMs combined with distributed lags nonlinear models (DLNMs)—stage 2], expressed in terms of relative risk (RR) and cumulative relative risk (RRC), indicated a relative significant effect up to 15 lag days of lag (RR > 1), with a first peak after 5 days (lag ranges 0–1, 0–3, and 0–5) and a second weak peak observed along the 5–15 lag range days. The estimated RR for females was significant, mainly in the second and fourth age group considered (19–44 and >65 years): RR for total ED visits 1.27, confidence interval (CI) 1.11–1.46 (lag 0–5 days); RR 1.42, CI 1.01–2.01 (lag 0–10 days); and RR 1.35, CI 1.09–1.68 (lag 0–15 days). The research also indicated a moderate involvement of the thermal factor in the onset of RC caused by UC, exclusively in the female sex. Further studies will be necessary to confirm these results.