, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 447-453,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Phenological changes and reduced seasonal synchrony in western Poland


Botanical gardens offer continuity for phenological recording in observers, protocols and plant specimens that may not be achievable from other sources. Here, we examine phenological change and synchrony from one such garden in western Poland. We analysed 66 botanical phenophases and 18 interphase intervals recorded between 1977 and 2007 from the Poznań Botanical Garden. These were examined for trends through time and responsiveness to temperature. Furthermore, we derived measures of synchrony for start of spring and end of autumn events to assess if these had changed over time. All 39 events with a mean date before mid-July demonstrated a significant negative relationship with temperature. Where autumn events were significantly related to temperature, they indicated a positive relationship. Typically, spring events showed an advance over time and autumn events a delay. Interphase intervals tended to lengthen over the study period. The measures of synchrony changed significantly over time suggesting less synchrony among spring events and also among autumn events. In combination, these results suggest increases in growing season length. However, responses to a changing climate were species-specific. Thus, the transitions from winter into spring and from autumn into winter are becoming less clearly defined.