International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 50, Issue 6, pp 342–348

Impact of extreme temperatures on daily mortality in Madrid (Spain) among the 45–64 age-group

Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00484-006-0033-z

Cite this article as:
Díaz, J., Linares, C. & Tobías, A. Int J Biometeorol (2006) 50: 342. doi:10.1007/s00484-006-0033-z


This paper analyses the relationship between extreme temperatures and mortality among persons aged 45–64 years. Daily mortality in Madrid was analysed by sex and cause, from January 1986 to December 1997. Quantitative analyses were performed using generalised additive models, with other covariables, such as influenza, air pollution and seasonality, included as controls. Our results showed that impact on mortality was limited for temperatures ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentiles, and increased sharply thereafter. During the summer period, the effect of heat was detected solely among males in the target age group, with an attributable risk (AR) of 13.3% for circulatory causes. Similarly, NO2 concentrations registered the main statistically significant associations in females, with an AR of 15% when circulatory causes were considered. During winter, the impact of cold was exclusively observed among females having an AR of 7.7%. The magnitude of the AR indicates that the impact of extreme temperature is by no means negligible.


Heat waveMortality45–64 age-groupTemperatureCold wave

Copyright information

© ISB 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julio Díaz
    • 1
  • Cristina Linares
    • 1
  • Aurelio Tobías
    • 2
  1. 1.Dpto. de Educación para el Desarrollo SostenibleAyuntamiento de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Mathematics Department, Faculty of ScienceBarcelona Autonomous UniversityBarcelonaSpain