Pediatric Nephrology

, Volume 29, Issue 9, pp 1589–1598

Kidney size and function in a multi-ethnic population-based cohort of school-age children

  • Hanneke Bakker
  • Marjolein N. Kooijman
  • Albert J. van der Heijden
  • Albert Hofman
  • Oscar H. Franco
  • H. Rob Taal
  • Vincent W. V. Jaddoe
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00467-014-2793-8

Cite this article as:
Bakker, H., Kooijman, M.N., van der Heijden, A.J. et al. Pediatr Nephrol (2014) 29: 1589. doi:10.1007/s00467-014-2793-8

Abstract

Background

Subclinical impaired kidney growth and function in childhood may lead to kidney diseases and high blood pressure in adulthood. We assessed the cross-sectional associations of childhood characteristics with kidney size and function in a multi-ethnic cohort.

Methods

This study was embedded in a population-based cohort study of 6,397 children with a median age of 6.0 years.Kidney volume, creatinine and cystatin C blood levels, microalbuminuria and blood pressure were measured, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated.

Results

Childhood anthropometrics were positively associated with kidney volume, creatinine level and blood pressure (all p < 0.05). We observed ethnic differences in all kidney size and function measures (all p < 0.05). Children with smaller kidneys had higher creatinine and cystatin C blood levels, leading to a lower estimated GFR [difference 5.68 ml/min/1.73 m2 (95 % confidence interval 5.14–6.12) per 1 standard deviation increase in kidney volume]. Larger kidney volume was associated with an increased risk of microalbuminuria.

Conclusions

Childhood kidney volume and function are influenced by body mass index and ethnicity. Kidney volume is related with kidney function but not with blood pressure. These results may help to identify individuals at risk for kidney disease in an early stage.

Keywords

AnthropometricsEthnicityKidney volumeKidney functionBlood pressure

Supplementary material

467_2014_2793_MOESM1_ESM.doc (132 kb)
ESM 1(DOC 132 kb)
467_2014_2793_MOESM2_ESM.doc (27 kb)
ESM 2(DOC 27 kb)
467_2014_2793_MOESM3_ESM.doc (40 kb)
ESM 3(DOC 39 kb)
467_2014_2793_MOESM4_ESM.doc (32 kb)
ESM 4(DOC 32 kb)

Copyright information

© IPNA 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hanneke Bakker
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Marjolein N. Kooijman
    • 1
  • Albert J. van der Heijden
    • 3
  • Albert Hofman
    • 2
  • Oscar H. Franco
    • 2
  • H. Rob Taal
    • 2
    • 3
  • Vincent W. V. Jaddoe
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.The Generation R Study GroupErasmus Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of EpidemiologyErasmus Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsErasmus Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands
  4. 4.The Generation R Study Group (Na-2915)Erasmus Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands