Date: 02 Apr 2014

Renal transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive children

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Abstract

Renal transplantation is being performed in adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and increasingly in paediatric patients as well. A multidisciplinary team involving an infectious disease professional is required to assist with HIV viral-load monitoring and in choosing the most appropriate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Drug interactions complicate immunosuppressant therapy and require careful management. The acute rejection rates appear to be similar in adults to those in noninfective transplant recipients. Induction with basiliximab and calcineurin-based immunosuppression appears to be safe and effective in these recipients. Prophylaxis is advised for a variety of infections and may need life-long administration, especially in children. Organ shortage remains a significant problem, and kidneys from deceased HIV-positive donors have been used successfully in a small study population. Overall, with careful planning and close follow-up, successful renal transplantation for paediatric HIV-infected recipients is possible.