, Volume 29, Issue 9, pp 1517-1528
Date: 24 Sep 2013

Malignancies after pediatric kidney transplantation: more than PTLD?


Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is the most frequent malignant complication of transplantation in childhood. Even with modern post-transplant immunosuppressive strategies, 1–2 % of all kidney transplant recipients will develop PTLD within the first 5 years after transplantation, and the risk remains high even thereafter as long as immunosuppression is required. In addition to PTLD, adult kidney transplant recipients have an increased incidence of other immunosuppression-related malignancies, such as non-melanoma skin cancer or Kaposi’s sarcoma. It is foreseeable that pediatric transplant recipients will face similar complications during their adult life. Not only immunosuppression but also other risk factors have been identified for some of these malignancies. Strategies addressing these risk factors during childhood may contribute to life-long cancer prevention. Furthermore, early recognition and regular screening may facilitate early diagnosis and treatment, thereby reducing transplant-related morbidity. In this review we focus on malignant complications after renal transplantation and discuss known risk factors. We also review current screening strategies for malignancies during post-transplant follow-up.