, Volume 29, Issue 9, pp 1507-1516,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 12 Sep 2013

Cardiovascular changes during chronic hypertensive states

Abstract

It is well established that elevated blood pressure constitutes a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, arrythmias, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease and renal failure. Blood pressure level and the duration of arterial hypertension (HTN) impact target organ damage. Many studies in adults have demonstrated the role of antihypertensive therapy in preventing cardiovascular (CV) events. The so-called hard end-points, such as death, myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke, are rarely seen in children, but intermediate target organ damage, including left ventricular hypertrophy, increased intima-media thickness and microalbuminuria, is already detectable during childhood. The goal of antihypertensive treatment is to reduce the global risk of CV events. In the adult population stratification of CV risk is based on blood pressure level, risk factors, subclinical target organ damage and established CV and kidney disease. Increased CV risk begins early in the course of kidney disease, and CV diseases are the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Children with CKD are especially prone to the long-term effects of CV risk factors, which result in high morbidity and mortality in young adults. To improve the outcome, pediatric and adult CKD patients require nephro- and cardioprotection.