, Volume 28, Issue 11, pp 2199-2206
Date: 20 Jul 2013

Acute kidney injury and its association with in-hospital mortality among children with acute infections

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Abstract

Background

We investigated prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) at hospitalization and its association with in-hospital mortality among Ugandan children hospitalized with common acute infections, and predictors of mortality among AKI children.

Methods

We enrolled 2,055 children hospitalized with primary diagnoses of acute gastroenteritis, malaria, or pneumonia. Serum creatinine, albumin, electrolytes, hemoglobin, and urine protein were obtained on admission. Participants were assessed for AKI based on serum creatinine levels. Demographic and clinical data were obtained using a primary care provider survey and medical chart review. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of in-hospital mortality.

Results

A total of 278 (13.5 %) of children had AKI on admission; for 76.2 %, AKI was stage 2 (98/278) or stage 3 (114/278) defined as serum creatinine >2- or 3-fold above normal upper limit for age, respectively. AKI prevalence was particularly high in gastroenteritis (28.6 %) and underweight children (20.7 %). Twenty-five percent of children with AKI died during hospitalization, compared to 9.9 % with no AKI (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.5 (95 % CI, 2.2–5.5)). In-hospital mortality risk did not differ by AKI stage. Predictors of in-hospital mortality among AKI children included primary diagnosis of pneumonia, aOR 4.5 (95 % CI, 1.8–11.2); proteinuria, aOR = 2.1 (95 % CI, 1.0–4.9) and positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, aOR 5.0 (95 % CI, 2.0–12.9).

Conclusions

Among children hospitalized with gastroenteritis, malaria, or pneumonia, AKI at admission was common and associated with high in-hospital mortality.

Dr. Imani and Dr. Odiit contributed equally to this paper.