, Volume 28, Issue 9, pp 1821-1826
Date: 16 Apr 2013

Detecting reflux: does ureteric jet Doppler waveform have a role?

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Abstract

Background

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has a prevalence of 30–40 % post-febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). If not detected early and treated, renal scarring, hypertension, and renal failure may occur. Micturating cystourethrography (MCU) is an invasive procedure associated with radiation exposure. Hence, this study aimed at evaluating the utility of ureteric jet Doppler waveform (UJDW) as a screening tool in detecting VUR, and at assessing the feasibility of performing it in children aged 2–4 years.

Methods

Any child 2–18 years old who needed an MCU was included. Exclusion criteria were active UTI, indwelling catheter, and inability to drink the required amount of fluid. The UJDW was performed prior to the MCU.

Results

One hundred eighty-two ureteric units were analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity of UJDW in detecting VUR was 80.3 and 87.9 %. Twenty-three children (45 ureteric units), aged 2–4 years were compared with 73 children (137 ureteric units), aged 5–18 years. Sensitivity and specificity of UJDW in detecting VUR in 2–4 years was 77.3 and 91.3 %, respectively; while in children ≥5 years, it was 81.8 and 87.1 %, respectively.

Conclusions

UJDW has a uniformly high specificity regardless of age or etiological groups, making it a good tool for follow-up. UJDW is a feasible technique, even in children aged 2–4 years.