Ambulatory blood pressure and subclinical cardiovascular disease in patients with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus
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- Canpolat, N., Kasapcopur, O., Caliskan, S. et al. Pediatr Nephrol (2013) 28: 305. doi:10.1007/s00467-012-2317-3
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its relation to risk factors, particularly hypertension in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
A total of 24 patients with normal renal function were examined for subclinical CVD by using non-invasive methods, including the measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid distensibility, aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and left ventricular mass (LVM). Blood pressure (BP) pattern and the presence of hypertension were assessed by 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM).
The patients had higher aortic PWV than the controls (p = 0.011). Increased carotid IMT was present in 48 % of the patients and reduced carotid distensibility in 17 %. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was present in 22 % of the patients. Eight patients were hypertensive; hypertensive patients had a significantly lower distensibility coefficient (DC)-SDS, higher aortic PWV and higher LVM index than the normotensive patients (p = 0.008, p = 0.023 and p = 0.001, respectively). Higher carotid IMT-standard deviation score (SDS) significantly correlated with higher nighttime diastolic BP-SDS (R2 = 0.204, p = 0.046); lower DC-SDS correlated with higher nighttime systolic BP-SDS (R2 = 0.290, p = 0.014). Increased aortic PWV was significantly associated with higher daytime systolic BP-SDS and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (R2 = 0.607, p = 0.003 and p = 0.010, respectively). PWV was the only independent predictor of LVM index (R2 = 0.396, p = 0.004).
These results provide additional evidence for the presence of subclinical CVD and its relation to hypertension in juvenile-onset SLE. They also indicate a significant relation between LVH and increased arterial stiffness. It is also important to note that our findings reveal significant relationships between ambulatory BP and cardiovascular changes and underline the importance of ABPM to predict CVD.