Cardorenal syndrome: an emerging problem in pediatric critical care
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- Jefferies, J.L. & Goldstein, S.L. Pediatr Nephrol (2013) 28: 855. doi:10.1007/s00467-012-2251-4
The cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) refers to a complex pathophysiologic state in which heart and kidney dysfunction coexist. Although a robust amount of adult literature exists, limited reports have been made regarding CRS in pediatric patients. However, CRS is increasingly being recognized as an impactful clinical problem that can have important implications regarding the need for treatment and prognosis. Although wide acceptance of a unified definition of CRS is lacking, a general consensus exists that CRS can be either primarily caused by cardiac disease with secondary effects on the kidney, or vice versa, as well as systemic conditions in which cardiac and renal disease are both considered to be secondary. Convincing data in the pediatric perioperative population have been reported, but there is a paucity of information in acute and chronic heart failure (HF), as well as acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Herein, we briefly report on the adult literature and summarize the current pediatric experience.