Published data on the comparative achievement of The Kidney Disease Dialysis Outcome Quality Initative (KDOQI) recommended clinical performance targets between children and young adults on dialysis are scarce. To characterize the achievement of KDOQI targets among children (<18 years) and young adults (18–24 years) with prevalent end stage renal disease (ESRD), we performed a cross-sectional analysis of data collected by the Mid-Atlantic Renal Coalition, in conjunction with the 2007 and 2008 ESRD Clinical Performance Measures Projects. Data on all enrolled pediatric dialysis patients, categorized into three age groups (0–8, 9–12, 13–17 years), and on a random sample of 5% of patients ≥18 years in ESRD Network 5 were examined for two study periods: hemodialysis (HD) data were collected from October to December 2006 and from October to December 2007 and peritoneal dialysis (PD) data were collected from October 2006 to March 2007 and from October 2007 to March 2008. In total, 114 unique patients were enrolled the study, of whom 41.2% (47/114) were on HD and 58.8% (67/114) on PD. Compared to the pediatric patients, young adults were less likely to achieve the KDOQI recommended serum phosphorus levels and serum calcium × phosphorus product values, with less than one-quarter demonstrating values at or below each goal. Multivariate analysis revealed that both young adults and 13- to 17-year-olds were less likely to achieve target values for phosphorus [young adults: odds ratio (OR) 0.04, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.01–0.19, p < 0.001; 13- to 17-year-olds: OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04–0.77, p = 0.02] and calcium × phosphorus product (young adults: OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.002–0.09, p < 0.001; 13- to 17-year-olds: OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02–0.56, p = 0.01) than younger children. In summary, there are significant differences in clinical indices between pediatric and young adult ESRD patients.