Pediatric Nephrology

, Volume 26, Issue 9, pp 1483-1489

First online:

Two-photon in vivo imaging of cells

  • Daniel J. ChristensenAffiliated withThe Institute of Optics, University of RochesterCenter for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester Medical Center Email author 
  • , Maiken NedergaardAffiliated withCenter for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester Medical Center

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In vivo imaging of cells gives a glimpse into the world of biology in a natural setting unparalleled by any other venue. Two-photon imaging of fluorescently labeled cells has become the standard to obtain high-resolution, dynamic images of living specimens with great specificity. This review focuses on providing the reader with a short history of, and impetus behind, two-photon imaging, its working mechanics, and emerging technologies related to biological multiphoton imaging.


In vivo Fluorescence imaging Two-photon imaging Laser scanning microscopy