Adiponectin, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease: emerging data on complex interactions
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- Lo, M.M. & Mitsnefes, M. Pediatr Nephrol (2012) 27: 521. doi:10.1007/s00467-011-1804-2
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Over the past decade, adiponectin has been a subject of interest in many fields of medicine. The effect of adiponectin in metabolism and inflammation has been described for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in animal studies and the general population, generally as a protective factor. Extensive literature pertaining to adult studies indicates that low adiponectin levels are associated with increased CVD morbidity and mortality in the general population and patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), however, despite an increased risk of poor cardiovascular outcomes, blood levels of adiponectin are actually higher than typical physiological levels. These unusual relationships question the protective role of elevated adiponectin in the milieu of CKD. This review summarizes the studies of adiponectin in the general pediatric population and its association with CVD risks in children and adults with CKD. Specific adiponectin values are generally avoided in this review, as there are no standardized normative values at this time – different assays with different “normal” cutoffs have been used and hence comparisons between studies would be invalid.