Prevalence and clinical correlates of microalbuminuria in children with sickle cell disease
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- Becton, L.J., Kalpatthi, R.V., Rackoff, E. et al. Pediatr Nephrol (2010) 25: 1505. doi:10.1007/s00467-010-1536-8
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Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with a large spectrum of renal abnormalities, one of which, microalbuminuria/proteinuria (MA/P), is a known predictor of end-stage renal disease. We studied 90 children with SCD (57% male; mean age 11.4 ± 5.2 years) to determine the prevalence and examine clinical correlates of MA/P. The average of two spot urine microalbumin-to-creatinine samples obtained 6 months apart was recorded. Medical records were reviewed for demographic and biochemical data. Medication use, resting office blood pressures (BP), vaso-occlusive pain crises (VOC), and monthly transfusions were recorded. Fourteen children (15.5%) had MA/P. Hemoglobin (Hb) levels were significantly lower in the children with MA than in those without MA/P (8.8 ± 1.1 vs. 9.8 ± 1.4 g/dL, respectively) and were significantly correlated with MA (rho = 0.24, p = 0.03). Children with MA were more likely to have abnormal BP (p = 0.058), with 5/14 being hypertensive or pre-hypertensive. In a multivariate logistic regression model of MA, both Hb and BP classification remained in the final model. MA is a simple screening biomarker of early kidney injury in children with SCD. Larger studies to evaluate predictive factors of MA and the relationship to BP are needed.