, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 415-424,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 21 Jan 2009

Nephrolithiasis related to inborn metabolic diseases

Abstract

Nephrolithiasis associated with inborn metabolic diseases is a very rare condition with some common characteristics: early onset of symptoms, family history, associated tubular impairment, bilateral, multiple and recurrent stones, and association with nephrocalcinosis. The prognosis of such diseases may lead to life threatening conditions, not only because of unabated kidney damage but also because of progressive extra-renal involvement, either in a systemic form (e.g. primary hyperoxaluria type 1, requiring combined liver and kidney transplantation), or in a neurological form (Lesch–Nyhan syndrome leading to auto-mutilation and disability, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase superactivity, which is associated with mental retardation). Patients with other inborn metabolic diseases present only with recurrent stone formation, such as cystinuria, adenine phosphoribosyl-transferase deficiency, xanthine deficiency. Finally, nephrolithiasis may be secondarily part of some other metabolic diseases, such as glycogen storage disease type 1 or inborn errors of metabolism leading to Fanconi syndrome (nephropathic cystinosis, tyrosinaemia type 1, fructose intolerance, Wilson disease, respiratory chain disorders, etc.). The diagnosis is based on highly specific investigations, including crystal identification, biochemical analyses and DNA study. The treatment of nephrolithiasis requires hydration as well as specific measures. Compliance is a major issue regarding the progression of renal damage, but the overall outcome mainly depends on extra-renal involvement in relation to the metabolic defect.