Urinary aprotinin as a predictor of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery in children receiving aprotinin therapy
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- Nguyen, M.T., Dent, C.L., Ross, G.F. et al. Pediatr Nephrol (2008) 23: 1317. doi:10.1007/s00467-008-0827-9
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Proteomic analysis has revealed potential early biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the most prominent one with a mass-to-charge ratio of 6.4 kDa. The objective of this study was to identify this protein and test its utility as a biomarker of AKI. Trypsin-digested protein bands were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to identify the protein in urine samples. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis and a functional activity assay were performed to quantify urinary levels in a pilot study of 106 pediatric patients undergoing CPB. The protein was identified as aprotinin. Urinary aprotinin levels 2 h after initiation of CPB were predictive of AKI (for functional assay: 92% sensitivity, 96% specificity, area under the curve of 0.98). By multivariate analysis, the urinary aprotinin level 2 h after CPB was an independent predictor of AKI (β = 0.001, P < 0.0001). The 2 h urinary aprotinin level correlated with serum creatinine, duration of AKI, and length of hospital stay. We concluded that urinary aprotinin levels 2 h after initiation of CPB predict the development of AKI and adverse clinical outcomes.