Clonidine provides opioid-sparing effect, stable hemodynamics, and renal integrity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy
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- Laisalmi, M., Koivusalo, A., Valta, P. et al. Surg Endosc (2001) 15: 1331. doi:10.1007/s004640090126
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Background: Carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum causes a hemodynamic stress response and decreases urine output because of an activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Clonidine is a potent antihypertensive drug that suppresses RAAS. Methods: The effects of clonidine 4.5 mg/kg or saline on hemodynamics, neuroendocrine response, and renal parameters were compared in 30 healthy patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results: Heart rate, arterial blood pressures, and plasma renin activity were lower during and after pneumoperitoneum in patients with clonidine. There were no differences in urine output, urine oxygen tension (reflecting medullary perfusion), or antidiuretic hormone between the groups. N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase, a marker of proximal tubular damage, was minimally elevated after clonidine. Conclusions: Clonidine enabled stable hemodynamics and prevented activation of RAAS seen as unchanged plasma renin activity. Clonidine may be beneficial during laparoscopy in patients with hypertension, cardiovascular, and/or renal diseases.