, Volume 28, Issue 10, pp 2815-2820
Date: 23 May 2014

Cardiovascular risk in obese diabetic patients is significantly reduced one year after gastric bypass compared to one year of diabetes support and education

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Abstract

Background

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces most of the obesity-related comorbidities known to increase the cardiovascular risk in obese subjects. The Framingham risk score (FRS) is designed to be independent of body weight and estimates the 10-year risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular disease (CVD), death from CHD, and death from CVD. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of RYGB on improving the FRS when compared to a matched control group who underwent diabetes support and education program (DSE).

Methods

In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated preoperatively and at 12 months, 61 morbidly obese subjects with diabetes. Thirty underwent laparoscopic RYGB, and 31 received 1 year of DSE, consisting of educational sessions on diet, nutrition, and exercise. Groups were matched for gender, age, weight, blood pressure, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Strict gender-specific FRS was used to assess the cardiovascular risk.

Results

Excess weight-loss percentages (%EWL) were 55.6 ± 15.1 in the RYGB group and 1.2 ± 10.8 in the DSE group (P < 0.001). The two groups were matched for baseline FRS. RYGB patients experienced a significant decrease in all FRS, whereas control subjects did not show a significant decrease for the 10-year risk for CHD, CVD and death from CVD. The between-group differences for changes from baseline to 12 months in all FRS were significant. The 10-year risk reductions for CHD, MI, stroke, CVD, death from CHD, and death from CVD in the RYGB group relative to the DSE group were, respectively, 42, 48, 30, 39, 50, and 50 %. No correlations between reduction in FRS and %EWL were found after RYGB.

Conclusions

A significant improvement in the 10 year estimated cardiovascular risk is observed in patients undergoing RYGB, but not in those who were offered usual medical therapy plus DSE. However, the effects of RYGB on FRS are independent of weight loss.

Presented at the SAGES 2014 Annual Meeting, April 2–5, 2014, Salt Lake City, Utah.