Predictors of poor outcomes in functionally dependent patients undergoing ventral hernia repair
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- Reynolds, D., Davenport, D. & Roth, J.S. Surg Endosc (2013) 27: 1099. doi:10.1007/s00464-012-2587-7
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Preoperative functional health status has been shown previously to affect outcomes following ventral hernia repair. The objective of this study was to identify specific factors that contribute to morbidity and mortality in functionally dependent patients who undergo elective ventral hernia repair.
We reviewed all patients in the ACS NSQIP database who underwent elective ventral hernia repair from 2005 to 2009. Patients were selected based on the following CPT codes: 49560, 49561, 49565, 49566, 49568, 49570, 49572, 49585, 49587, 49652, 49653, 49654, 49655, 49656, and 49657. Only patients classified as partially or totally dependent were included in this study. Thirty-day outcomes included mortality, wound occurrences, pulmonary occurrences, venous thromboembolism, development of sepsis/shock, renal failure/insufficiency, and cardiovascular events. We analyzed risk factors using multivariate analyses.
We identified 75,865 patients who underwent elective ventral hernia repair, of which 1,144 were classified as functionally dependent. Overall, major morbidity was observed in 211 (18.4 %) patients. There was no statistically significant difference in any measurable outcomes between laparoscopic and open hernia repairs. Increasing age proved to be an independent predictor of mortality, with an odds ratio of 1.63 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.27–2.12) for each 10 years of age beyond the mean. Ascites and preoperative renal failure also were identified as independent predictors of mortality, with odds ratios of 9.7 and 11.5, respectively. Preoperative pulmonary compromise was shown to be an independent predictor of both mortality and major morbidity, with odds ratios of 4.1 and 2.47, respectively.
Elective ventral hernia repair in the functionally dependent patient population has significant morbidity and mortality. Increasing age, ascites, preoperative renal failure, and preoperative pulmonary compromise are independent predictors of 30-day mortality. Nonoperative management should be strongly considered in the presence of these risk factors. Further studies are needed to determine optimum management strategies for functionally dependent patients with ventral hernias.