Article

Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 1004-1012

Functional luminal imaging probe geometric and histomorphologic analysis of abdominal wall wound induced by different trocars in pigs

  • Jingbo ZhaoAffiliated withCenter for Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital Science and Innovation Center
  • , Donghua LiaoAffiliated withCenter for Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital Science and Innovation Center
  • , Barry P. McMahonAffiliated withCenter for Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital Science and Innovation CenterAdelaide and Meath Hospital
  • , Deidre O’DonovanAffiliated withAdelaide and Meath Hospital
  • , Rich SchiretzAffiliated withCovidien Surgical Devices
  • , Russell HeninrichAffiliated withCovidien Surgical Devices
  • , Hans GregersenAffiliated withCenter for Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital Science and Innovation Center Email author 

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Abstract

Background

This study aimed to investigate wound geometry and tissue damage caused by several different trocar types using a quantitative functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) geometric profile and histomorphologic analysis.

Methods

Four pigs were used in this study. After general anesthesia, six different trocars were randomly inserted at preselected locations in the porcine abdominal wall. The hydration status of the animals was monitored and maintained. A bag mounted on a FLIP was used to profile the geometry of the trocar holes during distension. After the FLIP study, the abdominal wall surrounding the trocar holes was harvested. The tissue was fixed in neutral 10% buffered formalin solution for more than 24 h. The samples contained control tissue (undamaged) and test tissue (damaged) through the entire rectangular tissue block. Approximately four to seven slides were cut parallel to the surface from each sample. Each slide was photographed, and the morphometry of the hole and damaged areas were measured and displayed three-dimensionally. The histologic sections were analyzed with regard to acute damage, bleeding, and acute inflammation of the skin, muscle, and fascia.

Results

The FLIP study demonstrated differences between the six trocars. These were mainly due to differences between the Versaport Plus V2 bladed trocar with the smooth cannula, the Applied Medical Separator nonbladed access system with threaded cannula, and the VersaStep Plus trocar. The morphometry data showed the smallest hole and damage areas for the Versaport Plus V2 bladed trocar with the smooth cannula. The damaged area divided by the trocar hole area was smallest for the VersaStep plus trocar and the Ethicon Endopath bladed trocar with a stability cannula (p < 0.05). The histologic analysis showed that the VersaStep Plus trocar and the Ethicon Endopath bladed trocar with a stability cannula gave the least bleeding and inflammation (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

An agreement was found between the geometric data obtained by FLIP, the morphometric analysis, and the histology.

Keywords

FLIP Histology Morphometry Pigs Tissue damage Trocar