, Volume 21, Issue 11, pp 2012-2016
Date: 20 Aug 2007

Randomized clinical trial comparing radially expanding trocars with conventional cutting trocars for the effects on pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

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Trocar incisions are important sources of pain the first days after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Radially expanding trocars may cause less pain than conventional cutting trocars.


In a patient- and observer-blinded trial, 80 patients were randomized to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy using either radially expanding trocars (radial group) or conventional cutting trocars (cutting group). Two 10-mm and two 5-mm trocars were used in both treatment groups. All the patients received standardized anesthetic and analgesic treatment. The primary outcome was incisional pain. Pain was registered during mobilization using a visual analog scale (VAS) and a verbal rating scale (VRS) before and 6 h after the operation, and at postoperative days 1 and 2. The needs for a fascial incision to retract the gallbladder, active surgical hemostasis, and supplementary requirements of opioids during the hospital stay were registered. In addition, 2 days after the operation, the incidence and severity of suggilations at the trocar incisions were measured.


Data from 77 patients were available for statistical analysis. In the radial group, 23 patients needed fascial incision for gallbladder retraction compared with 11 patients in the cutting group (p = 0.006). No significant intergroup differences in VAS or VRS pain scores or any other variable were found.


The use of radially expanding trocars has no effect on incisional pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.