Review Article

Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 357-366

First online:

Surgical simulation: a current review

  • B. DunkinAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, University of Miami School of Medicine
  • , G. L. AdralesAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, Medical College of Georgia
  • , K. ApelgrenAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine
  • , J. D. MellingerAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, Medical College of Georgia Email author 

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Simulation tools offer the opportunity for the acquisition of surgical skill in the preclinical setting. Potential educational, safety, cost, and outcome benefits have brought increasing attention to this area in recent years. Utility in ongoing assessment and documentation of surgical skill, and in documenting proficiency and competency by standardized metrics, is another potential application of this technology. Significant work is yet to be done in validating simulation tools in the teaching of endoscopic, laparoscopic, and other surgical skills. Early data suggest face and construct validity, and the potential for clinical benefit, from simulation-based preclinical skills development. The purpose of this review is to highlight the status of simulation in surgical education, including available simulator options, and to briefly discuss the future impact of these modalities on surgical training.


Surgical Technical Digestive