Date: 11 May 2006

Ondansetron, metoclopramid, dexamethason, and their combinations compared for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective randomized study

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Abstract

Background

A prospective randomized study was performed to assess the value of some individual risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and to compare the efficacy of ondansetron, metoclopramide, dexamethason, and combinations of these antiemetics in preventing PONV in patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Methods

The study enrolled 210 patients (157 women and 53 men) scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients were randomly divided into seven groups. In groups 1 to 6, antiemetic drugs were administered. Group 7, the control group, received no antiemetic. For all the patients, individual risk factors for the incidence of nausea also were analyzed. Both nausea and vomiting were assessed separately 1, 4, 8, and 12 h after the procedure.

Results

Postoperative nausea and vomiting were significantly less frequent in menopausal women and more frequent in patients with a history of motion sickness. A comparison of mean values for the incidence of nausea and vomiting in groups 1 to 6 with the same values in group 7 showed that the mean PONV incidences were highest in groups 3 and 7, and the difference was significant.

Conclusions

Administration of antiemetic drugs significantly decreases the incidence of PONV in patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The best decreases were achieved when ondansetron and dexamethason were applied together.